Riddle 59 (or 57)

The following translation post is by Brett Roscoe, Assistant Professor at The King’s University in Alberta, and researcher of medieval wisdom literature. Take it away, Brett!

 

Ic seah in healle      hring gyldenne
men sceawian,       modum gleawe,
ferþþum frode.      Friþospede bæd
god nergende       gæste sinum
5     se þe wende wriþan;       word æfter cwæð
hring on hyrede,      hælend nemde
tillfremmendra.      Him torhte in gemynd
his dryhtnes naman      dumba brohte
ond in eagna gesihð,      gif þæs æþelan
10     goldes tacen       ongietan cuþe
ond dryhtnes dolg,      don swa þæs beages
benne cwædon.      Ne mæg þære bene
æniges monnes      ungefullodre
godes ealdorburg      gæst gesecan,
15     rodera ceastre.       Ræde, se þe wille,
hu ðæs wrætlican      wunda cwæden
hringes to hæleþum,       þa he in healle wæs
wylted ond wended       wloncra folmum.

 

I saw in the hall men behold
a golden ring, prudent in mind,
wise in spirit. He who turned the ring
asked for abundant peace for his spirit
5     from God the Saviour.* Then it spoke a word,
the ring in the gathering. It named the Healer
of those who do good. Clearly into memory
and into the sight of their eyes it brought, without words,
the Lord’s name, if one could perceive
10     the meaning of that noble, golden sign
and the wounds of the Lord, and do as the wounds
of the ring said. The prayer
of any man being unfulfilled,**
his soul cannot reach God’s royal city,
15     the fortress of the heavens. Let him who wishes explain
how the wounds of that curious ring
spoke to men, when, in the hall,
it was rolled and turned in the hands of the bold ones.

 

Highlight the box with your cursor to reveal the possible solution: Chalice

Translation Notes:

  • * Here I follow the Craig Williamson in translating god nergende as the object of the clause. Given the meaning of biddan (to pray, entreat, ask), I don’t think it likely that God is the subject. After all, who would God pray to?
  • **P.J. Cosijn suggests changing the manuscript ungefullodre to ungefullodra, translating it “of the unbaptized” (p. 130), the sense then being that the prayer of the unbaptized will not get them to heaven. The translation given here adopts the suggestion made by Frederick Tupper Jr. (p. 198).

References:

  • Cosjin, P. J. “Anglosaxonica. IV.” Beitrage, vol. 23 (1898), pages 109-30.
  • Tupper, Frederick Jr., ed. The Riddles of the Exeter Book. Boston: Ginn, 1910.
  • Williamson, Craig, ed. The Old English Riddles of the Exeter Book. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1977, pages 102, 313-14.

Riddle 58 (or 56)

Ic wat anfete      ellen dreogan
wiht on wonge.      Wide ne fereð,
ne fela rideð,      ne fleogan mæg
þurh scirne dæg,      ne hie scip fereð,
5     naca nægledbord;      nyt bið hwæþre
hyre mondryhtne      monegum tidum.
Hafað hefigne steort,      heafod lytel,
tungan lange,      toð nænigne,
isernes dæl;      eorðgræf pæþeð.
10     Wætan ne swelgeþ      ne wiht iteþ,
foþres ne gitsað,      fereð oft swa þeah
lagoflod on lyfte;      life ne gielpeð,
hlafordes gifum,      hyreð swa þeana
þeodne sinum.      Þry sind in naman
15     ryhte runstafas,      þara is Rad foran.

 

I know a one-footed thing, working with strength,
a creature on the plain. It does not travel far,
nor rides much, nor can it fly
through the bright day, no ship ferries it,
5     no nail-planked boat; it is however a benefit
to its master at many times.
It has a heavy tail, a little head,
a long tongue, not any teeth,
a share of iron; it treads an earth-hole.
10     It swallows no water nor eats a thing,
nor desires food, often however it ferries
a flood into the air; it boasts not of life
of a lord’s gifts, nonetheless it obeys
its own ruler. In its name are three
15     right rune-letters, with ‘rad’ at the front.

 

Highlight the box with your cursor to reveal the possible solutions: Well-sweep

Riddle 57 (or 55)

Today’s translation post is by Michael J. Warren. He has just completed his PhD on birds in medieval English poetry at Royal Holloway, where he is now a visiting lecturer. His new projects continue to focus on animal studies and ecocritical approaches to the natural world. Check out Michael’s blog, The Compleat Birder, here.

Ðeos lyft byreð      lytle wihte
ofer beorghleoþa.      Þa sind blace swiþe,
swearte salopade.      Sanges rope
heapum ferað,      hlude cirmað,
tredað bearonæssas,      hwilum burgsalo
niþþa bearna.      Nemnað hy sylfe.

The air bears little creatures
over the hillsides. They are very black,
swarthy, dark-coated. Bountiful of song
they journey in groups, cry loudly,
tread the woody headlands, sometimes the town-dwellings
of the sons of men. They name themselves.

Highlight the box with your cursor to reveal the possible solutions: Swifts, Swallows, Crows, Jackdaws, Starlings, House martins, Letters, Musical notes, Gnats, Stormclouds, Hailstones, Raindrops, Bees, Midges, Damned souls, or Demons

Riddle 56 (or 54)

Ic wæs þær inne      þær ic ane geseah
winnende wiht      wido bennegean,
holt hweorfende;      heaþoglemma feng,
deopra dolga.      Daroþas wæron
5     weo þære wihte,      ond se wudu searwum
fæste gebunden.      Hyre fota wæs
biidfæst oþer,      oþer bisgo dreag,
leolc on lyfte,      hwilum londe neah.
Treow wæs getenge      þam þær torhtan stod
10     leafum bihongen.      Ic lafe geseah
minum hlaforde,      þær hæleð druncon,
þara flana,      on flet beran.*

 

I was inside there, where I saw
a wooden object wounding a certain struggling creature,
the turning wood; it received battle-wounds,
deep gashes. Darts were
5     woeful to that creature, and the wood skillfully
bound fast. One of its feet was
held fixed, the other endured affliction,
leapt into the air, sometimes near the land.
A tree, hung about by leaves, was near
10     to that bright thing [which] stood there. I saw the leavings
of those arrows, carried onto the floor
to my lord, where the warriors drank.

 

Highlight the box with your cursor to reveal the possible solutions: Loom, Lathe

 

*Note that I’ve followed Craig Williamson’s emendation of line 12a, which in the manuscript reads þara flan (Krapp and Dobbie change it to þara flana geweorc). See:  Williamson. The Old English Riddles of The Exeter Book. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1977, page 307.

Riddle 55 (or 53)

Riddle 55’s translation is by Franziska Wenzel from Ruhr-Universität Bochum. Franziska is currently writing a PhD on the Exeter Book riddles, their Latin counterparts and narratological theory.

 

Ic seah in healle,      þær hæleð druncon,
on flet beran      feower cynna,
wrætlic wudutreow      ond wunden gold,
sinc searobunden,      ond seolfres dæl
5     ond rode tacn,     þæs us to roderum up
hlædre rærde,     ær he helwara
burg abræce.     Ic þæs beames mæg
eaþe for eorlum      æþelu secgan;
þær wæs hlin ond acc      ond se hearda iw
10     ond se fealwa holen;      frean sindon ealle
nyt ætgædre,      naman habbað anne,
wulfheafedtreo,      þæt oft wæpen abæd
his mondryhtne,     maðm in healle,
goldhilted sweord.      Nu me þisses gieddes
15     ondsware ywe,      se hine on mede
wordum secgan     hu se wudu hatte.

 

I saw in the hall, where the warriors drink,
four different kinds carried onto the floor,
a wondrous forest-tree and twisted gold,
a cunningly bound treasure, and some silver
5     and the sign of the cross of him who
raised a ladder for us up to the skies, before he
conquered the stronghold of the hell-dwellers. I can
easily speak before men of the tree’s nobility:
there was maple and oak and the hard yew
10     and the tawny holly. All of them
together are useful to a lord; they have one name,
wolf’s-head-tree, that often obtained a weapon,
for its lord, treasure in the hall,
a gold-hilted sword. Now reveal to me
15     the answer of this song, he who has the courage
to say with words how the wood is called.

 

Highlight the box with your cursor to reveal the possible solutions: Shield, Scabbard, Harp, Cross, Gallows, Sword rack, Sword box, Hengen (see commentary for more on this last one!)

Riddle 54 (or 52)

This post comes to us from Andrea Di Carlo, who’s a PhD candidate at Pisa University. Andrea’s research interests include the “obscene” riddles from the Exeter Book, and Protestant medievalism in Renaissance England. Take it away, Andrea:

 

Hyse cwom gangan,      þær he hie wisse
stondan in wincsele,      stop feorran to,
hror hægstealdmon,      hof his agen
hrægl hondum up,      hrand under gyrdels
5     hyre stondendre      stiþes nathwæt,
worhte his willan;      wagedan buta.
Þegn onnette,      wæs þragum nyt
tillic esne,      teorode hwæþre
æt stunda gehwam      strong ær þon hio,
10     werig þæs weorces.      Hyre weaxan ongon
under gyrdelse      þæt oft gode men
ferðþum freogað      ond mid feo bicgað.

 

There came walking a young man, to where he knew
she was standing in a corner. From afar he went,
the resolute young man, heaving his own clothing
with his hands, pushing something stiff
5     under her girdle while she was standing there,
worked his will; the two of them shook.
A retainer hastened, his capable servant
was useful sometimes; still, at times, he grew tired
though stronger than her at first,
10     weary due to work. Under the girdle,
there began to grow what good men often
love in their hearts and buy with money.

 

Highlight the box with your cursor to reveal the possible solutions: Butter churn, Baker’s boy and oven

Riddle 53 (or 51)

This week’s translation post is brought to you by the fabulous Sharon Rhodes. Sharon has just completed her PhD at the University of Rochester (defending this summer!), where she worked on Old English, biblical translation and translation theory.

 

Ic seah on bearwe      beam hlifian,
tanum torhtne.      Þæt treo wæs on wynne,
wudu weaxende.      Wæter hine ond eorþe
feddan fægre,      oþþæt he frod dagum
5 on oþrum wearð      aglachade
deope gedolgod,      dumb in bendum,
wriþen ofer wunda,      wonnum hyrstum
foran gefrætwed.      Nu he fæcnum weg
þurh his heafdes mægen      hildegieste
10 oþrum rymeð.      Oft hy an yste strudon
hord ætgædre;      hræd wæs ond unlæt
se æftera,      gif se ærra fær
genamnan in nearowe      neþan moste.

 

I saw a tree towering in a wood
with radiant branches. That tree was in joy
growing in the forest. Water and earth
fed him well, until he, wise in days,
5     came into a second, miserable state
deeply wounded, silent in his shackles,
racked all over with wounds, adorned with dark ornaments
on his front. Now he, through the might of head,
clears the path to another
10     treacherous enemy. Often they stole by storm
the treasure together; he was unhesitating and unflagging,
the follower, if the first was compelled to undertake
the journey, as a companion in confinement.

 

Highlight the box with your cursor to reveal the possible solutions: Battering Ram is the most common solution, but Cross and Gallows have also been suggested